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who fought ww2

[142], By early December, freshly mobilised reserves[143] allowed the Soviets to achieve numerical parity with Axis troops. The tank, which had been used predominantly for infantry support in the First World War, had evolved into the primary weapon. World War II changed the political alignment and social structure of the globe. [380] Unlike in the West, the Nazi racial policy encouraged extreme brutality against what it considered to be the "inferior people" of Slavic descent; most German advances were thus followed by mass executions. [22], The Kuomintang (KMT) party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mid-1920s, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese Communist Party allies[23] and new regional warlords. [334] China returned to its pre-war industrial production by 1952.[335]. By this time, of course, Europe was fast approaching World War II. [386] In Asia at the same time, China had roughly six times the population of Japan but only an 89 percent higher GDP; this is reduced to three times the population and only a 38 percent higher GDP if Japanese colonies are included. A denazification programme in Germany led to the prosecution of Nazi war criminals in the Nuremberg trials and the removal of ex-Nazis from power, although this policy moved towards amnesty and re-integration of ex-Nazis into West German society. [29] The United Kingdom and France supported imposing sanctions on Italy for the invasion, but the sanctions were not fully enforced and failed to end the Italian invasion. Aircraft were used for reconnaissance, as fighters, bombers, and ground-support, and each role was advanced considerably. [291] The Red Army also captured the southern part of Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands. [203], Exploiting poor American naval command decisions, the German navy ravaged Allied shipping off the American Atlantic coast. Korean War, conflict (1950–53) between North Korea, aided by China, and South Korea, aided by the UN with the U.S. as principal participant. In 1931, an increasingly militaristic Empire of Japan, which had long sought influence in China[24] as the first step of what its government saw as the country's right to rule Asia, staged the Mukden Incident as a pretext to invade Manchuria and establish the puppet state of Manchukuo. [374] While 37,583 prisoners from the UK, 28,500 from the Netherlands, and 14,473 from the United States were released after the surrender of Japan, the number of Chinese released was only 56. [314] The long period of political tensions and military competition between them, the Cold War, would be accompanied by an unprecedented arms race and proxy wars. [386], The United States produced about two-thirds of all the munitions used by the Allies in WWII, including warships, transports, warplanes, artillery, tanks, trucks, and ammunition. World War I had radically altered the political European map, with the defeat of the Central Powers—including Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire—and the 1917 Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, which led to the founding of the Soviet Union. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned towards Germany and its allies. [366] Soviet POWs were kept in especially unbearable conditions, and 3.6 million Soviet POWs out of 5.7 died in Nazi camps during the war. [131] The Kiev offensive was overwhelmingly successful, resulting in encirclement and elimination of four Soviet armies, and made possible further advance into Crimea and industrially developed Eastern Ukraine (the First Battle of Kharkov). Though the Allies' economic and population advantages were largely mitigated during the initial rapid blitzkrieg attacks of Germany and Japan, they became the decisive factor by 1942, after the United States and Soviet Union joined the Allies, as the war largely settled into one of attrition. The Japanese doctrine of Hokushin-ron, which emphasised Japan's expansion northward, was favoured by the Imperial Army during this time. [272] By January, the offensive had been repulsed with no strategic objectives fulfilled. Such leading figures as Elvis Presley, Paul Newman, and Kurt Vonnegut completed varying levels of duty to the Allies. The planned invasion was thwarted when an Allied task force, centred on two American fleet carriers, fought Japanese naval forces to a draw in the Battle of the Coral Sea. [11] A 1990 treaty regarding Germany's future allowed the reunification of East and West Germany to take place and resolved most post-World War II issues. [165][166] To prevent American intervention while securing the perimeter, it was further planned to neutralise the United States Pacific Fleet and the American military presence in the Philippines from the outset. [371] By the end of the war, most Soviet POWs liberated from Nazi camps and many repatriated civilians were detained in special filtration camps where they were subjected to NKVD evaluation, and 226,127 were sent to the Gulag as real or perceived Nazi collaborators. [367][368] In addition to concentration camps, death camps were created in Nazi Germany to exterminate people on an industrial scale. Mahatma Gandhi opposed fascism and on his advice youths from India joined the armed forces to fight with Britain along with allies. [169], The Japanese invasion of Thailand led to Thailand's decision to ally itself with Japan and the other Japanese attacks led the United States, United Kingdom, China, Australia, and several other states to formally declare war on Japan, whereas the Soviet Union, being heavily involved in large-scale hostilities with European Axis countries, maintained its neutrality agreement with Japan. [281] Meanwhile, the United States Army Air Forces launched a massive firebombing campaign of strategic cities in Japan in an effort to destroy Japanese war industry and civilian morale. In World War II, the United States was fighting against the Axis powers, which were mostly right-wing fascist governments. In 1939, the United States notified Japan that it would not be extending its trade treaty and American public opinion opposing Japanese expansionism led to a series of economic sanctions, the Export Control Acts, which banned U.S. exports of chemicals, minerals and military parts to Japan and increased economic pressure on the Japanese regime. In August, Chinese communists launched an offensive in Central China; in retaliation, Japan instituted harsh measures in occupied areas to reduce human and material resources for the communists. [224] This decision was partially affected by the Western Allies' invasion of Sicily launched on 9 July, which, combined with previous Italian failures, resulted in the ousting and arrest of Mussolini later that month. The latter was divided into western and eastern occupation zones controlled by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. In two weeks, the offensive had been repulsed, the Soviets advanced to Vienna, and captured the city. "Decision to commence investigation into Katyn Massacre". [37][38] Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell. A devastating bombing raid on Tokyo of 9–10 March was the deadliest conventional bombing raid in history. The Tripartite Pact stipulated that any country, with the exception of the Soviet Union, which attacked any Axis Power would be forced to go to war against all three. [205] In North Africa, the Germans launched an offensive in January, pushing the British back to positions at the Gazala line by early February,[206] followed by a temporary lull in combat which Germany used to prepare for their upcoming offensives. [179], By the end of April 1942, Japan and its ally Thailand had almost fully conquered Burma, Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, Singapore, and Rabaul, inflicting severe losses on Allied troops and taking a large number of prisoners. [94] The Germans turned south against the weakened French army, and Paris fell to them on 14 June. [257], On 22 June, the Soviets launched a strategic offensive in Belarus ("Operation Bagration") that destroyed the German Army Group Centre almost completely. Separate republics emerged on both sides of the 38th parallel in 1948, each claiming to be the legitimate government for all of Korea, which led ultimately to the Korean War. As a result, East Germany,[311] Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Albania[312] became Soviet satellite states. Website #2 explains that Germany had Italy and Japan helping them. [182] Japanese forces also achieved naval victories in the South China Sea, Java Sea and Indian Ocean,[183] and bombed the Allied naval base at Darwin, Australia. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945 (V-J Day), rather than with the formal surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945, which officially ended the war in Asia. In May 1943, Canadian and US forces were sent to eliminate Japanese forces from the Aleutians. Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-War Years: A First Approach on the Basisof Archival Evidence. [99] The United States started strategic planning to prepare for a full-scale offensive against Germany. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. In the wake of the war, Germany and Japan were occupied, and war crimes tribunals were conducted against German and Japanese leaders. [55], The situation reached a general crisis in late August as German troops continued to mobilise against the Polish border. [412][414], Other technological and engineering feats achieved during, or as a result of, the war include the world's first programmable computers (Z3, Colossus, and ENIAC), guided missiles and modern rockets, the Manhattan Project's development of nuclear weapons, operations research and the development of artificial harbours and oil pipelines under the English Channel. When the United States, Britain or France pay tribute to their countrymen who fought and … Jul–Aug 1942", "Casablanca – Beginning of an Era: January 1943", "The Trident Conference – New Patterns: May 1943", "Armistice Negotiations and Soviet Occupation", "March 9, 1945: Burning the Heart Out of the Enemy", "Results of the German and American Submarine Campaigns of World War II", "The Oder-Neisse Line as Poland's western border: As postulated and made a reality", "The Curzon line as the eastern boundary of Poland. [262] By this point, the Communist-led Partisans under Marshal Josip Broz Tito, who had led an increasingly successful guerrilla campaign against the occupation since 1941, controlled much of the territory of Yugoslavia and engaged in delaying efforts against German forces further south. The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had begun to deteriorate even before the war was over. [25], China appealed to the League of Nations to stop the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. In late October, American forces invaded the Filipino island of Leyte; soon after, Allied naval forces scored another large victory in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, one of the largest naval battles in history. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts, and the victorious great powers—China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States—became the permanent members of its Security Council. In early April, Soviet troops captured Königsberg, while the Western Allies finally pushed forward in Italy and swept across western Germany capturing Hamburg and Nuremberg. [273] On 4 February Soviet, British, and US leaders met for the Yalta Conference. Communist forces were victorious and established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, while nationalist forces retreated to Taiwan in 1949. Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The Soviet Invasion of Finland. Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. [325][326] The post-1948 West German recovery has been called the German economic miracle. [256] After that, the Western Allies slowly pushed into Germany, but failed to cross the Rur river in a large offensive. The Soviet Union invaded Finland in November 1939,[78] and the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations. [93], On 10 June, Italy invaded France, declaring war on both France and the United Kingdom. The main countries that formed the Allied forces during World War II were the United Kingdom, the United States, France and the Soviet Union. For other uses, see, Allies to Axis GDP ratio between 1938 and 1945, Western Europe/Atlantic and Mediterranean (1942–43), Genocide, concentration camps, and slave labour, The Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects, Consolidated Wanted Lists, Part 2 - Non-Germans only (March 1947), Uckfield 2005 (Naval & University Press); pp. [12] No formal peace treaty between Japan and the Soviet Union was ever signed.[13]. These defeats led to the resignation of the Japanese Prime Minister, Hideki Tojo, and provided the United States with air bases to launch intensive heavy bomber attacks on the Japanese home islands. The Soviet victory at Kursk marked the end of German superiority,[226] giving the Soviet Union the initiative on the Eastern Front. The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons. After the fall of Nanking, tens or hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants were murdered by the Japanese. With the Soviets wary of mounting tensions with Germany and the Japanese planning to take advantage of the European War by seizing resource-rich European possessions in Southeast Asia, the two powers signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in April 1941. The war in Europe concluded with the liberation of German-occupied territories, and the invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the fall of Berlin to Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. Before taking effect, though, the Franco-Soviet pact was required to go through the bureaucracy of the League of Nations, which rendered it essentially toothless. In a state of total war, directly involving more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries, the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. [89] The Germans carried out a flanking manoeuvre through the Ardennes region,[90] which was mistakenly perceived by Allies as an impenetrable natural barrier against armoured vehicles. [337][338][339] page 9. The war in Europe is generally considered to have started on 1 September 1939,[2][3] beginning with the German invasion of Poland; the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany two days later. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers; the U.S having served 16 million men, Germany serving 13 million, the Soviet Union serving 35 million and Japan serving 6 million. [116] The airborne invasion of the Greek island of Crete at the end of May completed the German conquest of the Balkans. [397][398][399] In the Atlantic, escort carriers proved to be a vital part of Allied convoys, increasing the effective protection radius and helping to close the Mid-Atlantic gap. [105] In December 1940 Roosevelt accused Hitler of planning world conquest and ruled out any negotiations as useless, calling for the United States to become an "arsenal of democracy" and promoting Lend-Lease programmes of aid to support the British war effort. [220] Soon after, the United States, with support from Australia, New Zealand and Pacific Islander forces, began major ground, sea and air operations to isolate Rabaul by capturing surrounding islands, and breach the Japanese Central Pacific perimeter at the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. NOAA Hurricane Forecast Maps Are Often Misinterpreted — Here's How to Read Them. [86] Denmark capitulated after a few hours, and Norway was conquered within two months[87] despite Allied support. [404][better source needed] Gradually, improving Allied technologies such as the Leigh light, hedgehog, squid, and homing torpedoes proved victorious over the German submarines. [234], German operations in the Atlantic also suffered. [377], In Europe, occupation came under two forms. [48] Encouraged, Hitler began pressing German claims on the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia with a predominantly ethnic German population. [53] Shortly after the Franco-British pledge to Poland, Germany and Italy formalised their own alliance with the Pact of Steel. Innovation included airlift (the capability to quickly move limited high-priority supplies, equipment, and personnel);[394] and of strategic bombing (the bombing of enemy industrial and population centres to destroy the enemy's ability to wage war). [413] Another aspect of military intelligence was the use of deception, which the Allies used to great effect, such as in operations Mincemeat and Bodyguard. [153] In September, Japan attempted to take the city of Changsha again and clashed with Chinese nationalist forces. On 30 April, the Reichstag was captured, signalling the military defeat of Nazi Germany,[276] Berlin garrison surrendered on 2 May. [322] Because of international trade interdependencies this led to European economic stagnation and delayed European recovery for several years. In April, the Allies launched an operation to retake Western New Guinea. Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943–1947", "Japan tested chemical weapons on Aussie POW: new evidence", "Final Compensation Pending for Former Nazi Forced Laborers", "Japan's atrocities of conscripting and abusing north China draughtees after the outbreak of the Pacific war", "Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942–50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942–45", "The AK-47: the worlds favourite killing machine", "Deception for Defense of Information Systems: Analogies from Conventional Warfare", "Discovery and Development of Penicillin: International Historic Chemical Landmark", "The Volunteer Armies of Northeast China", "Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments", "Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: A Note", "Soviet Defensive Tactics at Kursk, July 1943", "The Soviet-German War 1941–45 Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay", "August Storm: The Soviet Strategic Offensive in Manchuria", "The greatest military armada ever launched", Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, Atlas of the World Battle Fronts (July 1943 to August 1945), Records of World War II propaganda posters are held by Simon Fraser University's Special Collections and Rare Books, Maps of World War II in Europe at Omniatlas, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, History of World War II by region and country, Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, and British North Borneo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=World_War_II&oldid=997278083, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2019, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2016, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 20:08. [197] In May the Germans defeated Soviet offensives in the Kerch Peninsula and at Kharkov,[198] and then launched their main summer offensive against southern Russia in June 1942, to seize the oil fields of the Caucasus and occupy the Kuban steppe, while maintaining positions on the northern and central areas of the front. In September 1944, Chinese forces captured Mount Song and reopened the Burma Road. The British, on the other hand, argued that military operations should target peripheral areas to wear out German strength, leading to increasing demoralisation, and bolster resistance forces. [243], On 27 January 1944, Soviet troops launched a major offensive that expelled German forces from the Leningrad region, thereby ending the most lethal siege in history. [318] In the Middle East, the Arab rejection of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine and the creation of Israel marked the escalation of the Arab–Israeli conflict. [18], The United Kingdom, France and Italy formed the Stresa Front in April 1935 in order to contain Germany, a key step towards military globalisation; however, that June, the United Kingdom made an independent naval agreement with Germany, easing prior restrictions. [385], In Europe, before the outbreak of the war, the Allies had significant advantages in both population and economics. It called for the end of American aid to China and for lifting the embargo on the supply of oil and other resources to Japan. The Soviets decided to make their stand at Stalingrad on the Volga. During these negotiations, Japan advanced a number of proposals which were dismissed by the Americans as inadequate. After 1942, the number reached 10 million. [102], In November 1939, the United States was taking measures to assist China and the Western Allies and amended the Neutrality Act to allow "cash and carry" purchases by the Allies. Between the two bombings, the Soviets, pursuant to the Yalta agreement, invaded Japanese-held Manchuria and quickly defeated the Kwantung Army, which was the largest Japanese fighting force. In subsequent speeches Hitler attacked British and Jewish "war-mongers" and in January 1939 secretly ordered a major build-up of the German navy to challenge British naval supremacy. The main combatants were the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allies (France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and China). [215][217], In June 1943 the British and Americans began a strategic bombing campaign against Germany with a goal to disrupt the war economy, reduce morale, and "de-house" the civilian population. [215] Hitler responded to the French colony's defection by ordering the occupation of Vichy France;[215] although Vichy forces did not resist this violation of the armistice, they managed to scuttle their fleet to prevent its capture by German forces. [26] After the 1936 Xi'an Incident, the Kuomintang and communist forces agreed on a ceasefire to present a united front to oppose Japan. [261], In September 1944, Soviet troops advanced into Yugoslavia and forced the rapid withdrawal of German Army Groups E and F in Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia to rescue them from being cut off. [113], Italian defeats prompted Germany to deploy an expeditionary force to North Africa and at the end of March 1941, Rommel's Afrika Korps launched an offensive which drove back the Commonwealth forces. [351], In Asia and the Pacific, between 3 million and more than 10 million civilians, mostly Chinese (estimated at 7.5 million[352]), were killed by the Japanese occupation forces. [268] Soon after, they invaded the province of Guangxi, winning major engagements against Chinese forces at Guilin and Liuzhou by the end of November[269] and successfully linking up their forces in China and Indochina by mid-December. The situation was aggravated in early 1935 when the Territory of the Saar Basin was legally reunited with Germany, and Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, accelerated his rearmament programme, and introduced conscription. British discontent over the Norwegian campaign led to the appointment of Winston Churchill as Prime Minister on 10 May 1940. The Soviets formed the Polish Committee of National Liberation to control territory in Poland and combat the Polish Armia Krajowa; The Soviet Red Army remained in the Praga district on the other side of the Vistula and watched passively as the Germans quelled the Warsaw Uprising initiated by the Armia Krajowa. Joining The Navy Movie Co Military History Armed Forces World War Ii Actor Eddie Albert, who enlisted in the Navy in 1942, was awarded the Bronze Star with Combat "V" for his actions during the invasion of Tarawa in November 1943, when, as the pilot of a U.S. Coast Guard landing craft, he rescued 47 Marines who were stranded offshore (and supervised the rescue of 30 others), while under heavy enemy … The first, an offensive into the Arakan region in late 1942, went disastrously, forcing a retreat back to India by May 1943. [385] During Japan's initial conquest it captured 4,000,000 barrels (640,000 m3) of oil (~5.5×105 tonnes) left behind by retreating Allied forces, and by 1943 was able to get production in the Dutch East Indies up to 50 million barrels (~6.8×10^6 t), 76 per cent of its 1940 output rate. [101] The British Home Fleet scored a significant victory on 27 May 1941 by sinking the German battleship Bismarck. [154], German successes in Europe encouraged Japan to increase pressure on European governments in Southeast Asia. [88], On the same day, Germany launched an offensive against France. The countries that fought in World War II were Germany, Italy and Japan, which comprised the Axis Powers, and Britain, France, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, India, the Soviet Union, China and the United States of America, which comprised the Allies. [50], Although all of Germany's stated demands had been satisfied by the agreement, privately Hitler was furious that British interference had prevented him from seizing all of Czechoslovakia in one operation. [407] This idea was challenged by the poor performance of the relatively light early tank guns against armour, and German doctrine of avoiding tank-versus-tank combat. [98] The United Kingdom rejected Hitler's ultimatum,[which? Quick Reference Handbook Set, Basic Knowledge and Modern Technology (revised) by. [354] Mitsuyoshi Himeta reported that 2.7 million casualties occurred during the Sankō Sakusen. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century-long Cold War. By March, the Western Allies crossed the Rhine north and south of the Ruhr, encircling the German Army Group B. Retrieved 4 August 2011. Aircraft played a major role in the conflict, including in strategic bombing of population centres, the development of nuclear weapons, and the only two uses of such in war. [164], Japan planned to rapidly seize European colonies in Asia to create a large defensive perimeter stretching into the Central Pacific. Notable examples were the Allied decryption of Japanese naval codes[412] and British Ultra, a pioneering method for decoding Enigma benefiting from information given to the United Kingdom by the Polish Cipher Bureau, which had been decoding early versions of Enigma before the war. Some of the other Allied nations included Australia, Canada, Belgium and China. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937,[4][5] or the earlier Japanese invasion of Manchuria, on 19 September 1931. [70], Germany annexed the western and occupied the central part of Poland, and the Soviet Union annexed its eastern part; small shares of Polish territory were transferred to Lithuania and Slovakia. The British focused development on anti-submarine weaponry and tactics, such as sonar and convoys, while Germany focused on improving its offensive capability, with designs such as the Type VII submarine and wolfpack tactics. Many of the civilians died because of deliberate genocide, massacres, mass bombings, disease, and starvation. The United States fully committed immediately following the bombing of Pearl Harbor by Japan on Dec. 7, 1941. During World War II a group of soldiers were traveling through the Iranian mountains, where they met a boy selling a small bear cub. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations, but the League did little when the former clearly violated Article X of the League's Covenant. [62] The first German attack of the war came against the Polish defenses at Westerplatte. Pre-War industrial production by 1952. [ 13 ] from starvation, massacres, and Japan the. The Elbe river on 25 April, leaving several unoccupied pockets in southern and. With Germany was the bloodiest conflict, as fighters, bombers, and disease 293 ], the League nations. Primarily by Allied armour without using large-scale armies States started strategic planning to prepare for invasion. World participated in world war, the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad in street. Japanese leaders a COVID-19 Prophecy: did Nostradamus Have a Prediction about this Apocalyptic year waged. 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