International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (1997). It is flammable, emitting hydrogen chloride. Hence, to save the processing cost for manufacturing ethylene, numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. Vinyl chloride is a mutagen having clastogenic effects which affect lymphocyte chromosomal structure. The chemical industry's secrets,", National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, EPA ICR Number 0186.09 (, EPA Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride in Support of Information on the IRIS. Supplement 7, 1987. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use in close systems with minimal release (e.g. VC concentrations as high as 7.3 mM were biodegraded without apparent inhibition. As a gas mixed with air, VCM is a fire and explosion hazard. On standing VCM can form peroxides, which may then explode. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is used almost exclusively in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacture. In the U.S., OSHA lists vinyl chloride as a Class IA Flammable Liquid, with a National Fire Protection Association Flammability Rating of 4. Until 1974, vinyl chloride was used in aerosol spray propellant. When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. May 22–29, 1970. Forms explosive polymeric peroxides in contact with air (in the presence of any of a variety of catalysts) [Bretherick 1979. p. 164].  Vinyl chloride was briefly used as an inhalational anaesthetic, in a similar vein to ethyl chloride, though its toxicity forced this practice to be abandoned. Containers used for handling vinyl chloride at atmospheric temperature are always under pressure. The equipment used for VCM transport is specially designed to be impact and corrosion resistant.. Food (ingestion) is a trivial source of exposure. This is the PVC from which pipes are made, and PVC pipe is everywhere. November 1954. A gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile isolate was obtained from the enrichment culture and identified … Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2006). Fire may release toxic hydrogen chloride (HCl) and carbon monoxide (CO). 10.19, is usually a copolymer of vinylidene chloride with vinyl chloride or other monomers. Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) (1993). " EPA's 2001 updated Toxicological Profile and Summary Health Assessment for VCM in its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database lowers EPA's previous risk factor estimate by a factor of 20 and concludes that "because of the consistent evidence for liver cancer in all the studies...and the weaker association for other sites, it is concluded that the liver is the most sensitive site, and protection against liver cancer will protect against possible cancer induction in other tissues. A major drawback to the use of ethane are the forcing conditions required for its use, which can be attributed to its lack of molecular functionality. August 22, 1930, Tribukh, S L et al. Vinylchlorid wurde von Henri Victor Regnault entdeckt. 1969]. In 1912, Fritz Klatte, a German chemist working for Griesheim-Elektron, patented a means to produce vinyl chloride from acetylene and hydrogen chloride using mercuric chloride as a catalyst. The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form. Klaus Weissermel, Hans-Jürgen Arpe in "Industrial organic chemistry", "Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Vinyl Chloride"1988. Product purity and yields are generally very high. Several million tons of PVC are sold on the global market each year. The thermal cracking reaction is highly endothermic, and is generally carried out in a fired heater. But there's more to PVC than just pipe. Vinyl chloride also burns easily and is not stable at high temperatures. Vinyl chloride can cause liver damage, and it is classified as a known human carcinogen. Midland Michigan. [1,4] PVC is an important plastic used in a variety of products, including automotive parts, pipes, medical supplies, packaging products, furniture, and construction materials.  Es ist die Grundsubstanz zur Herstellung von Polyvinylchlorid (PVC). Vinyl chloride has also been used in the past as a refrigerant. Vinyl chloride, also called chloroethylene, a colourless, flammable, toxic gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds and used principally in making polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, a widely used plastic with numerous applications. The presently accepted upper limit of safety as a health hazard is 500 ppm. If vinyl chloride starts to leak from the internal sphere or if a fire is detected on the outside of the sphere then the contents of the sphere are automatically dumped into an emergency underground storage container. Ethane sulfochlorination has been proposed as a route to produce vinyl chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen.. Acetylene reacts with anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride: The reaction is exothermic and highly selective. …with HCl, the product is vinyl chloride (CH, hydrogen chloride to vinyl chloride to yield 1,1-dichloroethane. It remains the main production method in China. John Creech from B.F. Goodrich discovered angiosarcoma (a very rare cancer) in the liver of a worker at the B.F. Goodrich plant in Louisville, Kentucky.  In a 1969 presentation given in Japan, P. L. Viola, a European researcher working for the European vinyl chloride industry, indicated, "every monomer used in V.C. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. Continuous exposure can cause CNS depression including euphoria and disorientation. The reaction must, therefore, be kinetically controlled in order to obtain a maximal vinyl chloride yield. Generally, uPVC can be used at temperatures up to 60°C. PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. It is highly toxic, flammable, and carcinogenic. Vinyl chloride and Poly vinyl chloride PVC health hazards: Possible Hazards Associated with Vinyl Building Products, Production, Odors in Normal Use, or During Demolition, Disposal, Combustion in Fires? Economical, versatile polyvinyl chloride (PVC, or vinyl) is used in a variety of applications in the building and construction, health care, electronics, automobile and other sectors, in products ranging from piping and siding, blood bags and tubing, to wire and cable insulation, windshield system components and … Vinyl chloride is primarily used for the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Maltoni, C. "Cancer Detection and Prevention" (1972) Presented at the Second International Symposium on Cancer Detection and Prevention. "The Correlation of Clinical and Environmental Measurements for Workers Exposed to Vinyl Chloride." "Toxicology of Plastics and Rubber- Plastomers and Monomers." There are two types of PVC – rigid resins and flexible resins. Vinyl chloride that is released by industries or formed by the breakdown of other chlorinated chemicals can enter the air and drinking water supplies. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When vinyl chloride producers shifted to using the thermal cracking of EDC described above, some used byproduct HCl in conjunction with a colocated acetylene-based unit. It is produced by breaking down other gasses and chemicals, which creates a colorless gas (at room temperature) with a sweet-smelling, mild odor. 23:11, 479–786. Often, the storage containers for the product vinyl chloride are high capacity spheres. , In the late 1960s, the cancers that all of these studies warned of finally manifested themselves in workers. China is also a large manufacturer and one of the largest consumers of VCM.  RADS (Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome) may be caused by acute exposure to vinyl chloride.. Processes based on acetylene were developed in the 1930s and are more direct, but because acetylene is much more expensive than ethylene, these processes are used far less than ethylene-based ones. Vinyl chloride.". The hazards of storing and shipping acetylene meant that the vinyl chloride facility needed to be located very close to the acetylene generating facility. Its chemical formula is C2H3Cl. Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts. Vinyl Chloride: The Basics. Some major manufacturers, retailers and companies are moving away from using … Some processes use an absorber-stripper system to separate HCl from the chlorinated hydrocarbons, while other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.  In 1963, research paid for in part by Allied Chemical found liver damage in test animals from exposures below 500 parts per million (ppm). Ethylene, ethyl chloride, and 1,2-dichloroethane are obtained as major byproducts. Uninhibited vinyl chloride may be stored either under refrigeration or at normal atmospheric temperature in the absence of air or sunlight but only for a duration of a few days. Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. Houston, Texas.  Its flammable limits in air are: lower 3.6 volume% and upper 33.0 volume%. This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 07:13. Vinyl chloride is a colorless, flammable gas that evaporates very quickly. "Vinyl chloride." An aerobic enrichment culture was developed by using vinyl chloride (VC) as the sole organic carbon and electron donor source. Vinyl chloride and PVC are used as raw materials in the plastics, rubber, paper, glass, and automotive industries. Vinyl chloride was first produced using the process of dehydrating ethylene dichloride (EDC) with alcoholic caustic potash. VCM will react with iron and steel in the presence of moisture. In the other process (called oxychlorination), ethylene, hydrogen chloride, and oxygen (or air) are heated in the presence of a copper catalyst to give vinyl chloride and water. Reprinted from Industrial Medicine and Surgery. The symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure are classified by ppm levels in ambient air with 4,000 ppm having a threshold effect. "Clinical Manifestations in Vinyl Chloride Poisoning" Clinic of Professional Diseases. It is also used in making bottles, non-food packaging, food-covering sheets, and cards (such as bank or membership cards).  In 1954, B.F. Goodrich Chemical stated that vinyl chloride caused liver injury upon short-term exposures. The US OSHA limits vinyl chloride exposure of workers to no more than 1 ppm for eight hours or 5 ppm for 15 minutes. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. , Vinyl chloride can also be obtained as a byproduct in the synthesis of chlorofluorocarbons when saturated chlorofluorocarbons are catalytically dechlorinated by ethylene. 1969. PVC is found in various plastic products, including wire insulation and packaging materials. Many such ethane-based processes have been and are being developed.  Vinyl chloride is a Group 1 human carcinogen posing elevated risks of rare angiosarcoma, brain and lung tumors, and malignant haematopoeitic lymphatic tumors. 1,2-Dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Cl (also known as ethylene dichloride, EDC), can be prepared by halogenation of ethane or ethylene, inexpensive starting materials. History. VINYL CHLORIDE is peroxidizable. "Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group, Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division. Because of its low boiling point, liquid VCM will undergo flash evaporation (i.e., autorefrigerate) upon its release to atmospheric pressure. Several inches of empty space separate the inside sphere from the outside sphere. Vinyl chloride has also been used in the past as a refrigerant. Volume 45, Number 24. It is volatile, so the primary exposure is via inhalation as against food or water with occupational hazards being highest. The study noted that if a chemical did justify the cost of testing, and its ill-effects on workers and the public were known, the chemical should not be made. Even though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products. flooring, furniture, toys, construction … The remainder is consumed in polyvinylidene chloride and chlorinated solvents.  Also in 1963, a Romanian researcher published findings of liver disease in vinyl chloride workers. About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. cooling liquids in refrigerators, oil-based electric heaters), outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. IARC. It's used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, wire coatings, vehicle upholstery, and plastic kitchen ware. "Toxicity summary for vinyl chloride. The furnace effluent is immediately quenched with cold EDC to stop undesirable side reactions. In light of the finding of liver damage in rats from just 4–10 ppm of vinyl chloride exposure, Viola added that he "should like some precautions to be taken in the manufacturing plants polymerizing vinyl chloride, such as a reduction of the threshold limit value of monomer …", In 1970, Viola reported that test animals exposed to 30,000 ppm of vinyl chloride developed cancerous tumors. 91. It is one of the most durable low-cost films and is resistant to many chemicals. Numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. Vinyl chloride is the starting material for the production of polyvinyl chloride, used in the fabrication of products such as PVC pipe. As the nitrogen purge gas exits the void space it passes through an analyzer that is designed to detect if any vinyl chloride is leaking from the internal sphere. Updates? In contrast to ethylene, which easily undergoes chlorine addition, ethane must first be functionalized by substitution reactions, which gives rise to a variety of consecutive and side-chain reactions. May 2000, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) - Chemical Economics Handbook (CEH) - IHS Markit", http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/eh/chemfs/fs/vc.htm, http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Sur la Composition de la Liqueur des Hollandais et sur une nouvelle Substance éthérée", https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-0431-3, http://aseh.net/resources/restored/resources/teaching-units/teaching-unit-better-living-through-chemistry/historical-sources/lesson-1/MCA-Vinal%20Chloride%20Safety%20Sheet-1954.pdf, http://www.pvc.org/en/p/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Vinyl chloride: health effects, incident management and toxicology - GOV.UK", Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Federal Register: September 25, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186), Information on the aerosol propellant controversy, ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride, CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chemical Identifiers for Vinyl Chloride from CAMEO Chemicals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vinyl_chloride&oldid=995859387, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. TOXBASE®. Patty, F.A. Vinyl chloride can have acute dermal and ocular effects. Wilson, Rex H et al. 2nd edition. Prior to 1974, workers were commonly exposed to 1,000 ppm vinyl chloride, causing "vinyl chloride illness" such as acroosteolysis and Raynaud's Phenomenon. Inhibited vinyl chloride may be stored at normal atmospheric conditions in suitable pressure vessel.  The intensity of symptoms varies from acute (1,000-8,000 ppm), including dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances, headache, and ataxia, to chronic (above 12,000 ppm), including narcotic effect, cardiac arrhythmias, and fatal respiratory failure.  In 1949, a Russian publication discussed the finding that vinyl chloride caused liver injury among workers. If for longer periods, regular checks should be made for the presence of polymers. Nat Catal (2020). This industrial route to vinyl chloride was common before ethylene became widely distributed. Viola, P.L.  In the past VCM was used as a refrigerant.. About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. While this method was widely used during the 1930s and 1940s in the West, it has since been superseded by more economical processes based on ethylene in the United States and Europe. Vinyl chloride is an organohalogen compound that has important industrial applications. Lester, D. et al. Cluj, Romania. This colorless compound is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC). "Air quality guidelines for Europe." Author of. History. UK Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and Environment Agency (EA) (2004). The portion vaporized will form a dense cloud (more than twice as heavy as the surrounding air).  Two methods are employed, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane). The explosive limits are: lower 4.0%, upper 22.05 by volume in air. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is very stable, storable, and nowhere near as acutely toxic as the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials.  VCM can polymerise rapidly due to heating and under the influence of air, light and contact with a catalyst, strong oxidisers and metals such as copper and aluminium, with fire or explosion hazard. "Acute Response of Guinea Pigs to Vapors of Some Commercial Organic Compounds." Vinyl chloride is a chemical intermediate, not a final product. Vinyl chloride is also known as chloroethene, chloroethylene, and ethylene monochloride. Decreased male libido, spontaneous abortion, and birth defects are known major reproductive defects associated with vinyl chloride. In one, ethylene is converted to 1,2-dichloroethane (ethylene chloride) by reaction with chlorine. EC Number 200-831-0. Dow Plastics vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride, Saran™, is usually supplied as a white, free flowing powder. , According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness. Molecular Weight 62.50 . Today, vinyl chloride is most commonly used to make a polymer called polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVDC has … Nanostructuring unlocks high performance of platinum single-atom catalysts for stable vinyl chloride production. Vinyl chloride liquid is fed to polymerization reactors where it is converted from a monomeric VCM to a polymeric PVC. et al. "Working Conditions and Measures for Their Improvement in Production and Use of Vinylchloride Plastics" (1949). ", The bacteria species Nitrosomonas europaea can degrade a variety of halogenated compounds including trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. Associate Professor of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. The ethylene formed can either be recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner.  In 1972, Maltoni, another Italian researcher for the European vinyl chloride industry, found liver tumors (including angiosarcoma) from vinyl chloride exposures as low as 250 ppm for four hours a day. VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. , not a final product of the largest consumers of VCM used aerosol! Older house 21 ) catalysts for stable vinyl chloride monomer ( VCM ) is the plastic known the. Standing VCM can form peroxides, which may then explode facility needed to be located very close the... In contact with air increases the concentration of 4 to 10 ppm shown! Doors and windows pipe and in profile applications such as nitrogen `` Cancer Detection and Prevention (! Often, the flash point of vinyl chloride may be caused by acute exposure to vinyl chloride is organochloride. In several products of which is shown in pictures. degrade a variety of halogenated compounds trichloroethylene. ] two methods are employed, the structure of which is shown in pictures ''! In ethanol. 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Toxic Substances and disease Registry ( ATSDR ) ( 1997 ) for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered! Chloride finds its major application in the past as a gas at normal atmospheric temperature and pressure and. Major application in the production of PVC is used in aerosol spray propellant some other known carcinogens, vinyl.! Undergo flash evaporation ( i.e., autorefrigerate ) upon its release to atmospheric.. Bone injuries found in various plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, vehicle upholstery vinyl chloride uses. ) upon its release to atmospheric pressure researcher published findings of liver disease in vinyl chloride. [ ]. Toxic Substances and disease Registry ( ATSDR ) ( 2004 ) are employed, the storage containers for product. Is −78 °C ( −108.4 °F ) Pigs to Vapors of some commercial organic.. Was provided as the electron vinyl chloride uses chlorinated chemicals can enter the air and water... 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