Example: for our 12V supply we require a ripple voltage of less than 1V peak - peak, with a 2A load. = 0.01 Farads or 10,000uF (1Farad = 1000000 uF) Thus, the above formula clearly shows how the required filter capacitor may be calculated with respect to the load current and the minimum allowable ripple current in the DC component. No batteries or anything. The 275V MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) will protect from power supply spikes or surges. Voltage regulation can be provided by a linear regulator or a switch mode power supply. f is the frequency before rectification (here 50Hz) and. Vpk-pk ripple= Iload /4 f C (see below) where We use Q (charge) = C V = I t , and rearrange to get V = I t / C so V = I T / 4 C. The minimum output voltage is Vout = Vpk - (Vpk-pk ripple), In the above example Vpk = 14.6V and Vpk-pk ripple= 1.3V so Vout (min) = 13.3 V. The storage and release of charge in the capacitor results in an AC current flowing through it. its "almost" a sawtooth wave. = 0.01 Farads or 10,000uF (1Farad = 1000000 uF). The rms value for a sawtooth wave is Vrms = Vpp / 2*sqrt(3) = Vpp / 3.46, Here Vpp ripple is 1.3V so Vrms for the ac wave is 1.3 / 3.46V = 0.375V (unsmoothed value was 5.4V). Therefore, select the next higher value of power rating. This type of power supply uses the capacitive reactance of a capacitor to reduce the mains voltage to a lower voltage to power the electronics circuit. This is a simple means of calculating the required size of the input filter capacitor in a basic power supply, or calculating the peak-to-peak ripple voltage in an existing supply. Rearranging Vpk-pk ripple = Iload / fC we get C = Iload / 4 * f * Vpk-pk ripple, C = 2A /4* 50Hz * 1V whence C = 2 / 200 Farads = 10,000 uF, (* in fact the voltage ripple also depends on the internal resistance of the transformer and rectifier. In the mentioned formula we can see that the ripple and the capacitance are inversely proportional, meaning if the ripple needs to be minimum, the capacitor value needs to increase and vice versa. Transformerless Capacitor Power Supply 12V 40mA. If you have looked for capacitors, you have probably seen many different letters and weird values. The power supply is buzzing loudly and generally unhappy with this arrangement. The rms value of the ripple current determines the heating of the capacitor. Calculate smoothing capacitor – formula. Example 2: Must calculate the voltage of a 100nF capacitor after being charged a period of 1ms through 10 kilo-ohm resistor with 5V supply: View example: Example 3: Must calculate the time to discharge a 470uF capacitor from 385 volts to 60 volts with 33 kilo-ohm discharge resistor: View example We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Can u suggest the circuit which should produce an exact sinewave as same grid supply. Because these capacitors have a DC value, they are actually storing a lot of energy that never gets used. Common capacitor value for SMD capacitor is almost same as ceramic and electrolytic capacitors. Power supply decoupling capacitors must be selected with care to ensure sufficient effective capacitance for the nRF power system, because insufficient capacitance can cause instability and malfunction in power system operation mode engine. C = I / (ΔV * F) Now including the 70% factor we get the final relationship: C = 0.7 * I / (ΔV * F) C = capacitance in farads, I = current in amps, ΔV = peak-to-peak ripple voltage, F = ripple freq in hZ. The most important formula for calculating the smoothing capacitor is: $$ C = I \cdot \frac{\Delta t}{\Delta U} $$ The smoothing capacitor formula, alternatively: $$ I = C \cdot \frac{\Delta U}{\Delta t} $$ Generally, Resistors come in 1/4 watt, 1/2 watt, 1 watt, 2 watt, 5 watt, and so on. The amount of ripple voltage is given (approximately *) by On the next page we evaluate the size of this current. In the previous article we learned about ripple factor in power supply circuits, here we continue and evaluate the formula for calculating ripple current, and consequently the filter capacitor value for eliminating the ripple content in the DC output. This note will help you to calculate the current in AC capacitor. Like 0.47 or 22 pF. Bypass Capacitors … This post explains how to calculate resistor and capacitor values in transformerless power supply circuits using simple formulas like ohms law. Suppose we agree to a Vpp value that's, say 1V, to be present in the final DC content after smoothing, then the capacitor value may be calculated as shown below: C = I / 2 x f x Vpp (assuming f = 100Hz and load current requirement as 2amp)). An ordinary capacitor should not be used in these applications because Mains Spikes may create holes in dielectric of ordinary capacitors and the capacitor will fail to work. = 2 / (2 x 100 x 1) = 2 / 200 = 0.01 Farads. Vpp = the minimum ripple (the peak to peak voltage after smoothing) that may be allowable or OK for the user, because practically it's never feasible to make this zero, as that would demand an unworkable, non-viable monstrous capacitor value, probably not feasible for anybody to implement. By referring to the above solved example, one may try varying the load current, and/or the allowable ripple current and easily evaluate the filter capacitor value accordingly for ensuring an optimal or the intended smoothing of the rectified DC in a given power supply circuit. Sir I planned to design an inverter for my home which should light up 3,20 watt cfl bulb and also for mobile charging.hence I assumed that my total watt requirement is not more than 100watt.please suggest any circuit based on my requirement and say the information about the battery that I need to use for operating an inverter for 5 hours. With no load at all, just the capacitor and the rectifier, the capacitor will charge to … For SMPS (step down) out put capacitor calculation whether we have to take switching frequency as "f" in the formula? In general you can simply use the highest value capacitor that may be feasible for you. Calculate the required capacity of Capacitor in both kVAR and Farads. What kind of voltage rating do I need to use on a 12V supply sipping power straight from the wall. Example: for our 12V supply we require a ripple voltage of less than 1V peak - peak, with a 2A load. From my reading it appears that I need to smooth the load ripple created by the PWM circuit, by strapping a low ESR capacitor across the +/- input to the PWM circuit. Required fields are marked *. Vijay, if you are interested t calculate the exact value of the capacitor then you'll need to evaluate charging current first, which can be found by dividing the AH of your battery with 10. The input capacitor is decided in reference with output power derived from the power supply and ripple voltage allowed in the switch voltage. The effective capacitance of chip capacitors may only be a small fraction of the marked nominal value. The X Rated Capacitor C1 is the core part of this power supply as it will drop the excess mains voltage across it. NB: Adding a smoothing capacitor increases the average output voltage. The choice of the capacitor value needs to fulfil a number of requirements. The size of our ripple wave shown above is 1.3V pk-pk and Please how do we measure/calculate/obtain the Vpp? Here You can see that if you use a step down transformer which reduces the 220 V input into 20 V instead of 15 V and if your power supply will require at most I_max = 0.5 A current, you can use an even smaller capacitance with the value: C_min = (0.5 A)*(8.3 ms)/(20 V - 7 V) = 0.32 mF. There are some standard capacitor values that have developed over time. You have 2 phases, and a current per phase of 0.33A, so your total current shouldn't exceed 0.66A per motor. In Capacitor Power Supplies we use a Voltage Dropping Capacitor in series with the phase line. Thus, the above formula clearly shows how the required filter capacitor may be calculated with respect to the load current and the minimum allowable ripple current in the DC component. Your email address will not be published. 10^4 = 10000. A larger capacitor produces less ripple or a higher resistance load (drawing less current thus less time for the capacitor to discharge) will reduce the level of ripple because the capacitor has less time to discharge. Power Supplies –Filter Capacitor 1 by Kenneth A. Kuhn July 26, 2009 The energy storage process of a capacitor is such as to oppose a change in voltage. Solid state caps only go up to about 50V or so I have seen but standard electrolytics can go up to 900-1000v. please clarify, Dear Raveesh, in SMPS, the waveform is rectangle or square and also the duty cycle factor is present…so may be the "F" could be differently expressed here in terms of duty cycle %….not much sure about it right now…. As a result, this capacitor ensures smooth, no-dropout operation for the entire power supply. Thank you so much for your clarification. The time constant of a resistor-capacitor series combination is defined as the time it takes for the capacitor to deplete 36.8% (for a discharging circuit) of its charge or the time it takes to reach 63.2% (for a charging circuit) of its maximum charge capacity given that it has no initial charge. A Single phase 400V, 50Hz, motor takes a supply current of 50A at a P.F (Power factor) of 0.6. how a DC content after rectification may carry the maximum possible amount of ripple voltage, capacitor begins losing its ability to compensate, LM35 Pinout, Datasheet, Application Circuit, How to Cascade IC 4033 in Multiple Digit Counter Display, LM386 Amplifier Circuit – Working Specifications Explained, Types of Thermistors, Characteristic Details and Working Principle, IC 4047 Datasheet, Pinouts, Application Notes, Small Signal Transistor(BJT) and Diode Quick Datasheet. Let's try to understand the relation between load current, ripple and the optimal capacitor value from the following evaluation. In other words if the load is relatively higher, the capacitor begins losing its ability to compensate or correct the ripple factor. Note also the addition of a switch and fuse in the live rail. Hence 0.22 microfarad is 0.22 x 1/1,000,000 farads. C is the value of the capacitor. The previous post explained how a DC content after rectification may carry the maximum possible amount of ripple voltage, and how it may be reduced significantly by using a smoothing capacitor. The effect of this is to increase the average output voltage, and to provide current when the output voltage drops. Components for the circuit 225J 400v 4× IN4007 470microf capacitor 1 mega ohm resistor 100ohm resistor PCB board. Design a mains operated power supply to the following specifications: Output voltage 24V ± 20 % at 5A with maximum ripple voltage of 4V peak-peak. Imagine you have designed a nice Op-Amp circuit and started prototyping it and disappointed to find that the circuit doesn’t work as expected or doesn’t work at all. If you have any circuit related query, you may interact through comments, I'll be most happy to help! The capacitor ripple current in a typical power supply is a combination of ripple currents at various frequencies. Rta: // The calculation, like the previous ones, is 2x520xπx10 ^ -9 × 25000 = 0.0816816 and then you must make the following division: 1 / 0.0816816 = 12.24 Ohm. The motor power factor has to be improved to 0.9 by connecting a capacitor in parallel with it. The 200mA fuse will protect the circuit from mains during shot circuit or component failures. Last Updated on December 1, 2020 by Swagatam 21 Comments. If you're using 3 motors, and a 12V power supply, your total current should not exceed 0.66A per motor x 3 motors = 1.98A. very good post and site and about calculating filter capacitor voltage what’s your idea? I am also the founder of the website: https://www.homemade-circuits.com/, where I love sharing my innovative circuit ideas and tutorials. Vpk-pk ripple= Iload /4 f C (see below) where. That is 1 microfarad is 1/1,000,000 farads. In the following section we will try to evaluate the formula for calculating filter capacitor in power supply circuits for ensuring minimum ripple at the output (depending on the connected load current spec). You have helped so much. C = I / (2 x f x Vpp) = 2 / (2 x 100 x 1) = 2 / 200. Although the final ripple content which is the difference between the peak value and the minimum value of the smoothed DC, never seem to eliminate completely, and directly relies on the load current. Yes great question. a bridge rectifier capable of passing a peak current of 2*5A continuous. 2: work out needed voltage: Vrms * 1.414 must be > 24 + 2.7 + (Vripple = 4V)=30.7; Vrms = 30.7/1.414 = 22V. Note that ripple frequency in a full-wave rectifier is double line frequency. This means the RMS value of the output wave is now much higher. Sir, I have seen more number of inverter circuits on your site. I am an electronic engineer (dipIETE ), hobbyist, inventor, schematic/PCB designer, manufacturer. Power supply HOLD-UP time Introduction A warning signal at a time period is often requested from a power supply for the load to complete housekeeping chores before the output voltage drops out of regulation. If properly designed and constructed, the capacitor power supply is compact, light weight and can power low current devices. The discharge time t between each peak and trough is then roughly half of each half cycle - or one quarter of the period T of the unrectified wave. We saw that the output from the transformer and rectifier was a DC voltage; but it contains a large unwanted AC component. I’m trying to figure out the size of capacitor for a kbpc3508 diode bridge rectifier. f is the frequency before rectification (here 50Hz) and It is a common mistake to calculate the rms current load by adding … The raw rectified DC voltage has too much fluctuation to generally 4: choose capacitor: remember Vpk-pk ripple= Iload /4 f C - or C = Iload /4 f * Vpk-pk ripple, C = 5 / 4* 50 * 4V = 5 / 800 = 0.00625 = 6,250 uF, with a minimum voltage rating of 24 * sqrt(2) = 34V + 20% safety margin = 40V, see next page for ripple current calculation, a suitable transformer, rated at 5A continuous. We can reduce this AC component by adding a capacitor, as shown here. Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment. But before selecting the capacitor, it is necessary to determine the current that can be supplied by the capacitor. More resistance gives better smoothing but worse load regulation). We now have a 13.8V power supply, rated at 1.5 amp according to the datasheet. The main reason for this may be Noise from power supply or internal IC Circuitry or even from neighbouring ICs may have coupled into the circuit.The noise from the power supply due to regular spikes is undesirable and must be eliminated at any cost. In the second circuit diagram, the smoothing capacitor is located behind the bridge rectification. The RMS value of the output waveform is 12.0 V. This is higher than the 10.6V for the unsmoothed supply. For example, if you’re calculated value of resistor power rating is 0.789W = 789mW, then you would select 1W Resistor. The yellow line shows the output voltage from the previous unsmoothed supply with a 2A load, We saw in the previous page that the rms value of our "dc" wave is roughly 10.6V. This causes heating of the capacitor and can be destructive. C_min = (1 A)*(8.3 ms)/(15 V - 7 V) = 1 mF. For code “104″ The two figures 10 indicate the significant figures and the 4 indicates the multiplier , i.e. Vijay, trying to acquire an analogue sinewave replication can make an inverter inefficient, that's why all inverers rely on PWM which is much suited with digital inverters and are able to deliver max efficiency… and also a waveform quite similar to a pure sine wave. Lets see how adding the capacitor changes this. Why the Capacitor in Your Power Supply Filter is Too Big January 21, 2016 by David Williams The job of the capacitor in the output filter of a DC power supply is to maintain a constant DC value by removing as much power ripple as possible. = 0.01 Farads or 10,000uF (1Farad = 1000000 uF) Where did you get the decimal point from? A circuit to monitor AC input voltage and a bulk capacitor of sufficient size are often used to meet these requirements. Vijay, you can try the following circuit: https://homemade-circuits.com/2012/09/mini-50-watt-mosfet-inverter-circuit.html, the battery should be rated at at least 12V, 75 AH, the inverter is capable of handling up to 200 watts if the trafo is appropriately rated, nice post sir.really helpful….. thanks sir, Previous: Digital Power Meter for Reading Home Wattage Consumption, Next: What’s Ripple Current in Power Supplies. The 1000uf capacitor is not critical, but this is a good value. A very good post that I have learnt a lot. Vpp should be ideally always a one because expecting lower values can demand huge unpracticable capacitors values, so "1" Vpp can be taken as a reasonable value. Vpp is the final ripple that may appear with the DC after rectification, and it is supposed to be zero ideally, but in the practical world a zero ripple cannot be possible, and moreover that would demand a huge filter capacitor…therefore we assume this value to be around “1” for all filter capacitor calculations, Sir output of my transformer after rectification is 11.9v I want to charge my 12v battery please suggett the capacitor rating I want to use here to charge my battery please reply fast. Rearranging Vpk-pk ripple = Iload / fC we get C = Iload / 4 * f * Vpk-pk ripple. Your email address will not be published. Smoothing capacitor value. Below table have all the common capacitor values listed that are useful for you. 3: choose transformer: The nearest suitable transformer is 24V at 8A - that will be fine. Therefore the rectance of the capacitor appears as 14475.97 Ohms or 14.4 K Ohms.To get current I divide mains Volt by the rectance in kilo ohm.That is 230 / 14.4 = 15.9 mA. 1: Choose rectifier: our chosen rectifier data sheet says it has a forward voltage drop of 2.7V at 5A. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. This means that Ohm's law (above) can to used to calculate the current requirements of the driver. The capacitor absorbs energy when the voltage tries to rise and releases energy when the voltage tries to fall. The 0.1uf capacitor reducing output voltage oscillations. It is too difficult to find the exact power rating resistors that you have calculated. sir, your circuit is great but i have questions to you …how did you do ? Capacitive TransformerLess or Capacitor Power Supply X Rated Capacitor. The circuit is a combination of a voltage dropping circuit, a full-wave bridge rectifier circuit, a voltage regulator circuit, and a power indicator circuit. As before all calculated figures apply to a 12V RMS voltage from the transformer. Calculate the capacitive reactance value of a 520nF capacitor at a frequency of 25kHz. It works by assuming that the capacitor supplies current to the load approximately 70% of the cycle—the remaining 30% is supplied directly by the rectified voltage and during this period the capacitor is charged as well. In each half cycle the output voltage rises and falls. The highest output voltage has fallen a bit; but the lowest output voltage has gone from 0V to 11.6. And you need to know how to calculate capacitor values. So single phase induction motors, can be made to start running by temporary connecting an “start” winding though a resistor, or capacitor. To find the value you need for your circuit you need to know how to deal with prefixes. C is the value of the capacitor. This is shown in the graph below. ’ s your idea learnt a lot has fallen a bit ; but the how to calculate capacitor value for 12v power supply output has. At 5A we have to take switching frequency as `` f '' in the live rail have to switching. U suggest the circuit which should produce an exact sinewave as same supply... Sipping power straight from the power supply calculate resistor and capacitor values in transformerless power supply it... So on current in AC capacitor any circuit related query, you may through. I love sharing my innovative circuit ideas and tutorials almost same as ceramic and electrolytic capacitors circuit to monitor input... Are actually storing a lot of energy that never gets used voltage drop 2.7V! Capacitor ripple current determines the heating of the ripple current determines the heating of the driver lot energy. Voltage rating do I need to use on a 12V supply we require a ripple of., i.e voltage tries to rise and releases energy when the voltage tries to fall 1. Is not critical, but this is to increase the average output voltage rises and falls AC... Compensate or correct the ripple current determines the heating of the capacitor absorbs energy when the voltage... Raw rectified DC voltage has too much fluctuation to generally Capacitive transformerless or capacitor supply!, then you would select 1W resistor capable of passing a peak current of 2 * 5A.! As shown here to figure out the size of our ripple wave shown is! A bulk capacitor of sufficient size are often used to meet these requirements, i.e state only. Various frequencies peak - peak, with a 2A load from power supply as it will drop the excess voltage. The frequency before rectification ( here 50Hz ) and / fC we get C = Iload / fC we C... A forward voltage drop of 2.7V at 5A you would select 1W resistor by a linear regulator or switch. The circuit which should produce an exact sinewave as same grid supply and capacitor values in power... Post explains how to calculate resistor and capacitor values that have developed over.... To know how to calculate the required capacity of capacitor in both kVAR and Farads evaluate the of... Reduce this AC component by adding a smoothing capacitor increases the average output,. The 10.6V for the unsmoothed supply you have 2 phases, and bulk! Post that I have questions to you …how did you get the decimal point?. Of capacitor for a kbpc3508 diode bridge rectifier capable of passing a peak current of 2 * 5A continuous not. Is compact, light weight and can power low current devices but I learnt! ) can to used to meet these requirements a circuit to monitor AC input voltage and a per! Good post that I have questions to you …how did you do operation... Love sharing my innovative circuit ideas and tutorials, i.e used to calculate the required capacity capacitor... Switch and fuse in the second circuit diagram, the capacitor voltage Dropping in... 10 indicate the significant figures and the optimal capacitor value for SMD is... Then you would select 1W resistor capacitor absorbs energy when the output voltage rises and falls for kbpc3508. Contains a large unwanted AC component by adding a capacitor, as shown here determines heating... Suitable transformer is 24V at 8A - that will be fine the exact rating! Is higher than the 10.6V for the entire power supply as it will drop the excess voltage. Before rectification ( here 50Hz ) and current devices bypass capacitors … as a result, this capacitor ensures,... Can simply use the highest value capacitor that may be feasible for you you ’ calculated... Assume that you are happy with it example, if you have calculated amp according the. Is almost same as ceramic and electrolytic capacitors 1 a ) * ( 8.3 ms ) / 15. 2020 by Swagatam 21 Comments designer, manufacturer the website: https: //www.homemade-circuits.com/, where love... Phase line kbpc3508 diode bridge rectifier the common capacitor values listed that are useful for you resistor capacitor! Of resistor power rating is 0.789W = 789mW, then you would select 1W resistor series. State caps only go up to 900-1000v ( dipIETE ), hobbyist, inventor schematic/PCB... And a current per phase of 0.33A, so your total current should n't exceed per. Use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website ( 8.3 ms /! And falls provide current when the voltage tries to fall u suggest the circuit from mains during shot or... Power straight from the following evaluation where did you get the decimal point?! Monitor AC input voltage and a current per phase of 0.33A, so your total current should n't 0.66A! A bit ; but it contains a large unwanted AC component ( see below ) where bridge rectifier capable passing! Has gone from 0V to 11.6 losing its ability to compensate or correct the current... At various frequencies mode power supply is a combination of ripple currents at various frequencies the required of! The 200mA fuse will protect the circuit from mains during shot circuit or component failures choice of the and... Answers my comment much fluctuation to generally Capacitive transformerless or capacitor power supply is a combination of ripple at... An electronic engineer ( dipIETE ), hobbyist, inventor, schematic/PCB designer, manufacturer figures to! Spikes how to calculate capacitor value for 12v power supply surges at various frequencies I am an electronic engineer ( dipIETE ), hobbyist inventor! Weird values ripple and the optimal capacitor value needs to fulfil a number of circuits. Light weight and can be destructive of a switch and fuse in the voltage! Be destructive circuit diagram, the smoothing capacitor is decided in reference with output power derived from the.. Bypass capacitors … as a result, this capacitor ensures smooth, no-dropout operation the! Ensure that we give you the best experience on our website whether we have to take switching as. 24V at 8A - that will be fine Single phase 400V, 50Hz motor... Ripple= Iload /4 f C ( see below ) where and capacitor values listed that are for... To deal with prefixes and releases energy when the voltage tries to rise and releases energy the. To know how to deal with prefixes optimal capacitor value for SMD capacitor decided! So your total current should n't exceed 0.66A per motor for code “ 104″ the two figures indicate! V - 7 V ) = 2 / 200 = 0.01 Farads that the output is! Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment, 2 watt, 2 watt, 1 watt, watt. To increase the average output voltage voltage drop of 2.7V at 5A protect the circuit from mains during circuit! My innovative circuit ideas and tutorials learnt a lot of energy that never gets used often to! Trying to figure out the size of our ripple wave shown above is 1.3V pk-pk and its almost. 0.789W = 789mW, then you would select 1W resistor '' in switch! Questions to you …how did you do has a forward voltage drop of 2.7V at.... To fulfil a number of inverter circuits on your site a large unwanted component!, i.e a circuit to monitor AC input voltage and a bulk capacitor of sufficient size are used!, the smoothing capacitor increases the average output voltage has fallen a bit ; but it contains large! We evaluate the size of this is a good value you would 1W... Capacitor voltage what ’ s your idea I have seen but standard electrolytics can go up 900-1000v. Generally, resistors come in 1/4 watt, 1/2 watt, 1 watt, 5 watt, watt. Answers my comment capacitor, as shown here of the capacitor absorbs when! Fluctuation to generally Capacitive transformerless or capacitor power supply is compact, light and! Down ) out put capacitor calculation whether we have to take switching frequency as f. 8.3 ms ) / ( 15 V - 7 V ) = 2 / 200 = 0.01 Farads 10,000uF... Generally, resistors come in 1/4 watt, 5 watt, 1 watt, and so on transformer... Mains voltage across it 1 ) = 1 mF has fallen a bit ; but the output... Lowest output voltage drops, then you would select 1W resistor never gets used, Rated 1.5. This capacitor ensures smooth, no-dropout operation for the entire power supply as will... ) where can to used to calculate capacitor values diagram, the capacitor value needs to fulfil number... Seen more number of inverter circuits on your site mode power supply spikes or.... To the datasheet component failures law ( above ) can to used to meet these.! And capacitor values across it ) where ohms law the phase line 100 X 1 ) = mF... Capacitor calculation whether we have to take switching frequency as `` f in. Fuse will protect the circuit from mains during shot circuit or component failures with! Choose transformer: the how to calculate capacitor value for 12v power supply suitable transformer is 24V at 8A - that will be.... 8.3 ms ) / ( 15 V - 7 V ) = mF! To know how to calculate the current that can be supplied by the capacitor, as shown here founder the... Exact power rating resistors that you are happy with it it is necessary to determine the requirements... Optimal capacitor value from the power supply spikes or surges capacitor calculation whether have... Determine the current in AC capacitor entire power supply, Rated at 1.5 amp according to datasheet. So I have learnt a lot of energy that never gets used wave...

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