the city of pergamum can be described as

PERGAMOS; PERGAMUM. The monuments of the Attalids and the Romans were only plundered ruins by this time. A consequence of the city's growth was the construction of new buildings over old ones, since there was not sufficient space. Generally, most of the Hellenistic houses at Pergamon were laid out with a small, centrally-located and roughly square courtyard, with rooms on one or two sides of it. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. The City of Pergamum Pergamum, at one time the capital city of the Roman province of Asia Minor, was known for its spectacular architecture and many beautiful temples dedicated to a variety of gods. The key description is that of Thomas Smith, who visited the Levant in 1668 and transmitted a detailed description of Pergamon, which the great 17th century travellers Jacob Spon and George Wheler were able to add nothing significant to in their own accounts. [68][69], At Pergamon, Dionysus had the epithet Kathegemon, 'the guide',[70] and was already worshiped in the last third of the 3rd century BC, when the Attalids made him the chief god of their dynasty. Volume X: Ákos von Szalay – Erich Boehringer et al. Further rooms of uncertain function were accessible from the stoas. As a result of this short but intensive investigation, two fragments of a great frieze were discovered and transported to Berlin for detailed analysis, where they received some interest, but not a lot. On the lower level there were rooms only on the south and east sides because of the slope of the land, which led through a colonnade to the exterior of the space. PERGAMUM pûr’ gə məm (Πέργαμος, G4307)., UNESCO World Heritage Convention - Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Pergamon, Turkey, Pergamum - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Sanctuary of Demeter occupied an area of 50 x 110 metres on the middle level of the south slope of the citadel. They also belonged to Antipas, a Roman businessman at the time. [72] Only a few traces of the Hellenistic structure survive. Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. ", W. Dörpfeld, "Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1901–1902. Pergamon, Mysia, circa 450 BC. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world. [19][20], It suffered from the attacks of the Seljuks on western Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071: after attacks in 1109 and in 1113, the city was largely destroyed and rebuilt only by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180) in c. 1170. Yet it was only under Trajan and his successors that a comprehensive redesign and remodelling of the city took place, with the construction a Roman 'new city' at the base of the Acropolis. The construction consisted in total of three levels. The Lost Letters of Pergamum, a book by Bruce W, Longenecker is a fictional book that gives multiple views of the culture of the first century Church. It was also an important religious center, being mentioned in the New Testament as one of the Seven Churches of R… Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Since it was the most important street of the city, the quality of the material used in its construction was very high. Additional theatres were built in the Roman period, one in the Roman new city and the other in the sanctuary of Asclepius. The location of the library building is not certain. Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. One reason often suggested for this statement is that Pergamum housed a famous temple to Asklepius, the … A two-story stoa surrounding the temple on three sides was added under Eumenes II, along with the propylon in the southeast corner, which is now found, largely reconstructed, in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. The most famous structure from the city is the monumental altar, which was probably dedicated to Zeus and Athena. In 1871, he organised a small expedition there under the leadership of Ernst Curtius. Zur Entwicklung des hellenistischen Stadtzentrums von Pergamon. Pergamon's oldest temple is a sanctuary of Athena from the 4th century BC. After this, Pergamon lost its privileged status with the Romans and was awarded no further territory by them. The foundations are still located in the Upper city, but the remains of the Pergamon frieze, which originally decorated it, are displayed in the Pergamon museum in Berlin, where the parts of the frieze taken to Germany have been installed in a partial reconstruction. 1. In the east part of the courtyard, there were more than ten rows of seating laid out in front of the northern stoa for participants in the mysteries of Demeter. [22] The adaptation of the myth is not entirely smooth. In contrast to it, Philetairos' system of alleys was created unsystematically, although the topic is still under investigation. Telephus refused to participate in the Trojan War, but his son Eurypylus fought on the side of the Trojans. In 238 his successor Attalus I defeated the Galatians, to whom Pergamon had paid tribute under Eumenes I. Roughly 800 initiates could fit in these seats.[85]. [19] As a result of this ongoing threat, the area of settlement retracted to the citadel, which was protected by a 6-meter-thick (20 ft) wall, built of spolia. [26] With his mother, he was said to have fled to Mysia where he killed the ruler of Teuthrania and gave the city his own name. [49] In the west, the 'West Chamber' was built which might have served as a market administration building. All the other buildings in the sanctuary were made out of trachyte, but the visible part of the temple was made of marble, or at least had a marble cladding. Circa 357-352 BC. Corrections? "The Idea of the Library as a Classical Model for European Culture,". At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level. [71] In the 2nd century BC, Eumenes II (probably) built a temple for Dionysus at the northern end of the theatre terrace. Thus, the view along the terrace to the Temple of Dionysos at the northern end was unimpeded. A PICTURE OF THE CITY (vv. P Pergamum was also home to an impressive 40-foot-high alter to Zeus. Their significance for architectural history lies in the form of the last kilometres from the mountains through a 200-metre-deep (660 ft) valley to the Akropolis. In the centre of the western half of this courtyard, stood the Ionic temple of Demeter, a straightforward Antae temple, measuring 6.45 x 12.7 metres, with a porch in the Corinthian order which was added in the time of Antoninus Pius. About 9.5 metres in front of the east-facing building, there was an altar, which was 7 metres long and 2.3 metres wide. [67], The well-preserved Theatre of Pergamon [de] dates from the Hellenistic period and had space for around 10,000 people, in 78 rows of seats. As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. The message to the Pergamene church was from the Lord Jesus Christ, specifically addressed to the “angel” (or “messenger”) of the church: “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: ‘These are the words of him who has the … The apostle John wrote a letter to the Christians who lived in Pergamum. Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia Minor long before the rise of the city. Pergamum was located at the most northern point of the seven cities located in Asia Minor that were described in the Book of Revelation. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. Under the Roman Empire the city was situated on the plain below. They built a library excelled only by that at Alexandria. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263; Eumenes I 263-241; Attalus I 241-197; Eumenes II 197-159; Attalus II 159-138; Attalus III 138-133. The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. Pergamon became part of the modern town of Bergama, in 1864/5, the was... To other rooms be worshipped as Asclepius, the victorious Romans deprived Pergamon of ancient! Roman baths were constructed to the west coast of Asia Minor created unsystematically, although he did receive cult... Augustus, the 'West Chamber ' was developed at the city of the courtyard opened. Access to exclusive content to 1911, who, however, interfered in most aspects of government... Steps around 7.5 metres wide three cult statues built on a podium, metres... One who had a heroon in the reign of Attalos I some Minor were! Courtyard often opened onto a central courtyard the end of the city plan begins to show signs of this temple! 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