The samples were stored in glass or plastic bottles and under room temperature (20°C–24°C) or refrigeration (6°C–9°C). This is because hydroxyl radicals, which attack benzoic acid to yield benzene, only form in the presence of free copper and/or iron ions . R. M. Vinci, L. Jacxsens, J. van Loco et al., “Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market,”. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety reported results of analysis of benzene content in 16 soft drinks containing both sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid; 13 samples contained nondetectable levels of benzene and three samples contained benzene at levels between 0.7 and 4.7 mg/L 45). It evaporates quickly when exposed to air. After eight days stored in the dark, the solutions had a benzene concentration of 176 ng/g. Studies of benzene in food, especially in nonalcoholic beverages, are done globally (Table 1). This suggests that both ascorbic acide and its degradation products may induce peroxide formation in the presence of metal ions and oxygen, generating hydroxyl radicals that attack benzoate, yielding benzene . X.-L. Cao, V. Casey, S. Seaman, B. Tague, and A. Becalski, “Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”, P. J. Nyman, G. W. Diachenko, G. A. Perfetti, T. P. Mcneal, M. H. Hiatt, and K. M. Morehouse, “Survey results of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”. The acid is a preservative and examples of foods that contain high â¦ Several billion kilograms of polystyrene are produced per year, and its uses include plastic cutlery, food packaging, foam packing materials, computer housings and insulation materials. Questions and answers about benzene in beverages from the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Benzene in soft drinks from Health Canada This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Benzene may be introduced in foods during processing, in processes like smoking, roasting, and ionizingradiation[ ].Notmuchinformationisavailableon smoking, except for a study that found benzene concentra- tions of and parts per billion (ppb) in smoked meats [, ]. The acid is a preservative and examples of foods that contain high … 2. We often talk about a lot of substances that are dangerous to our health--ones that may be found at home, in the workplace, or in nature. Federal rules limit benzene levels in drinking water to 5 parts per billion.  studied the effect of sugar on benzene formation in liquid models containing ascorbic acid, benzoate, and three different concentrations of sucrose (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 M). Mitigating measures applied in foods to decrease the formation of benzene have been effective. Where Benzene Exposures Are Coming From. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Dong, and H.-L. Chen, “Investigation into benzene, trihalomethanes and formaldehyde in Chinese lager beers,”, M. Bilau, C. Matthys, C. Vinkx, and S. de Henauw, “Intake assessment for benzoates in different subgroups of the Flemish population,”. Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Even after all the ascorbic acid had reacted, as seen in pickled caper berries stored in plastic bottles for 26 and 27 weeks, benzene continued to form, indicating that benzoate decarboxylation can be induced by ascorbic acid degradation products during long storage periods at room temperature . The list contains the Limit, Critical, Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of human health and vegetation. Benzene formation was greater in samples heated to 40°C than in those exposed to UV or visible light. Lachenmeier et al. Measured and predicted environmental concentrations were used to estimate the accumulation of benzene in the food chain and the subsequent extent of human exposure from inhalation and ingestion. Toxicology and metabolism in humans are discussed. In 2006, Health Canada conducted a survey of benzene in beverage products. Its density is 1.89 at 66â. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Sodium benzoate is a food preservative found in soft drinks and acidic foods such as jams, sauces, fruit juice and pickles. Benzene may be introduced in foods Copyright © 2015 Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos et al. Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. Complexation inactivates the catalytic activity of the metal by occupying all of its coordination sites . Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent and natural sources of toluene include crude oil and small quantities it is found in tolu tree.Toluene alternative names include methylbenzene, toluol, anisen, phenyl methane. Raw water may be contaminated with benzene. Traces of copper and iron may catalyze reactions involving ascorbic and benzoic acids. Its molecular weight is 291g/mol. It is a common contaminant in the atmosphere. Liquid smoke is made from partial wood combustion . (ix)Check the product storage conditions since strong light and high temperatures speed up the formation of free radicals. They are more vulnerable because they absorb more contaminants than adults exposed to equal concentrations. A. J. Gava, C. A. The largest source of benzene to households in the above-mentioned populations is natural gas development and petroleum refining. However, stabilized PET bottles reduced benzene formation in beverages containing orange juice only marginally. The reaction doesn’t happen in red cherry juice, however, and so it could be prevented by storing benzaldehyde flavouring in amber-coloured containers, say the researchers. Small amounts of benzene found in some soft drinks in 2013 may have come from their benzaldehyde cherry flavouring interacting with light, according to new research. Fortunately, that use was also abandoned. Benzoates control the growth of some bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts, preventing product deterioration and the growth of pathogenic species . Even though benzene occurs naturally, and is commonly formed during natural processes such as volcanic activity and forest fires, it is still harmful to health. Some popular one are mentioned and discussed below. In 2008, Aprea et al.  used the margin of exposure (MoE) to calculate the exposure of children to benzene in carrot juice and found that there was no reason to avoid the occasional consumption of this beverage; however, one must bear in mind that this is not the only source of benzene exposure and that benzene tends to accumulate in the human body. The formation and occurrence of benzene in non-alcoholic â¦ It is an important industrial chemical and a precursor in the production of other chemicals, plastics, synthetic rubber, dyes, etc. Analysis of more than 50 foods, including eggs, by purge-and-trap/static headspace concentration and capillary gas chromatography showed that foods without added benzoates had less than 2 ng/g of benzene. (iv)Raw carbon dioxide may be contaminated—the limit is 20 ppm of benzene (v/v). Anemia-This experiment is undergo to determine and quantify the benzene content in beverages rather the amount … Benzene and benzene-based molecules are part of many popular medications used to relieve pain, alleviate cold and flu symptoms, and as a weight-loss aid. Association with benzene in soft drinks. This article contains information about the occurrence of benzene in the environment and the sources of exposure to this compound. McNeal et al. This is of many Uses of benzene in everyday life. Benzene is among the 20 â¦ Medeiros Vinci et al. As a solvent Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. Ascorbic acid usually occurs naturally in some fruit juices, such as orange, lime, and acerola, among others, and may also be added as an antioxidant or nutrient. Benzene may be formed by decarboxilation of the benzoic Benzene was first isolated by M. Faraday (1825). Benzene is widely used as a solvent. Nonalcoholic beverages are among the foods with the highest benzene concentrations. In this case, the addition of chelators, such as EDTA or sodium polyphosphates, may help to minimize benzene formation. The said factors include the buffer system used, other sources of hydroxyl radicals in foods (riboflavin photooxidation and lipid oxidation), concentration of transition metal ions, and the inhibitory action of antioxidants. From the data presented in the literature and presented here, we conclude that benzene is a chemical hazard in food, although oral exposure is negligible compared to environmental exposure. (vii)Consider removing, reducing, or replacing benzoates with other microbial growth inhibitors. (x)Transition metals may be present in raw water and sweeteners. These results suggest that traces of metal ions present in the water or reagents may be enough to catalyze hydroxyl formation . Chiefly manufactured from benzene, its chief uses are in the manufacturing of plastics, dyes, and disinfectants. Benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts are among the most common preservatives used for inhibiting microbial growth because of their cost-benefit ratios . Benzene is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 human carcinogen . While studying the mechanism of benzene formation in carrot juice for children, Lachenmeier et al. Its boiling point is 323℃. This contamination is a public health concern and has caused significant outcry among environmental and health advocates. Research on benzene n 1993, research showed how benzene can form from benzoic acid in the presence of vitamin C In 2006, the Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) detected benzene in 27 out of 30 (90%) vitamin-enriched drinks. The said reaction was favored by an acidic pH but significantly slowed down at the 3–5 pH range. Trace amounts of benzene can form in beverages when ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) combines with either sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate. In work by Morsi et al. Potential. Consider removing, reducing, or replacing benzoates with other microbial growth inhibitors. The list contains the Limit, Critical, Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of human health and vegetation. However, there are still several benzoic acid hazards to consider, especially when this compound becomes a regular part of your diet. Potential. Benzene is produced naturally by volcanoes and forest fires. Yet, there are indications that certain foodstuï¬ s contain increased concentrations of this and of similar components (e.g. The presence of other antioxidants and pH may also play a role . A. Becalski, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. But benzene exposure may cause several short-term health problems as well as several kinds of cancer. The presence of ascorbic acid and benzoates alone does not lead to the formation of benzene. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. 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